I've recently been playing around with MIM 2016 and stood up an Exchange 2010 server within the environment. Trying to provision to AD with Exchange functionality has proven difficult. I would get no-start-ma in the MIM Sync console after the AD export.
When I removed the removed the exchange provisioning functionality in the MA extensions section, the export worked as expected. I was able to prove that I could connect to remote powershell so that didn't seem to be the issue yet I continue having the problem. After googling around I ran across Thomas' blog in setspn.blogspot and found the same thing.
On the MIM sync server, install .Net 4.6. Install all windows updates (including optional). Reboot - I had to reboot twice as the FIM service wouldn't start the first time. All seems to be working now. Thanks for the info Thomas.